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Being from the Kwilu river valley and not a blood relative of any of the previous kings, his reign marked the beginning of the House of Kwilu.

There were certainly factions that opposed him, though it is not known specifically who they were. In addition to allowing the Portuguese to establish themselves in Luanda, Kongo provided the Portuguese with support in their war against the Kingdom of Ndongo in The kingdom of Ndongo was located inland east of Luanda and although claimed in Kongo's royal titles as early as , was probably never under a firm Kongo administration.

However, the king of Portugal won the right to nominate the bishops to this see , which became a source of tension between the two countries.

Portuguese bishops in the kingdom were often favourable to European interests in a time when relations between Kongo and Angola were tense.

They refused to appoint priests, forcing Kongo to rely more and more heavily on the laity. Documents of the time show that lay teachers called mestres in Portuguese-language documents were paid salaries and appointed by the crown, and at times Kongo kings withheld income and services to the bishops and their supporters a tactic called "country excommunication".

Controlling revenue was vital for Kongo's kings since even Jesuit missionaries were paid salaries from the royal exchequer.

At the same time as this ecclesiastical problem developed, the governors of Angola began to extend their campaigns into areas that Kongo regarded as firmly under its sovereignty.

Other campaigns in the vicinity led to denunciations by the rulers of Kongo against these violations of their sovereignty. In order to raise support against some enemies, they had to make concessions to others.

One of the most important of these concessions was allowing Manuel, the Count of Soyo, to hold office for many years beginning some time before Tensions between Portugal and Kongo increased further as the governors of Portuguese Angola became more aggressive.

Luis Mendes de Vasconcelos , who arrived as governor in , used mercenary African groups called Imbangala to make a devastating war on Ndongo, and then to raid and pillage some southern Kongo provinces.

He was particularly interested in the province of Kasanze , a marshy region that lay just north of Luanda.

Many slaves being deported through Luanda fled into this region and were often granted sanctuary, and for this reason, Mendes de Vasconcelos decided that a determined action was needed to stop it.

Correia de Sousa claimed he had the right to choose the king of Kongo. Pedro II was originally from the duchy of Nsundi, hence the name of the royal house he created, the House of Nsundi.

Correia de Sousa also contended that Pedro II had sheltered runaway slaves from Angola during the latter's governorship of Mbamba. The First Kongo-Portuguese War began in , initially because of a Portuguese campaign against the Kasanze Kingdom , which was conducted ruthlessly.

From there, the army moved to Nambu a Ngongo, whose ruler, Pedro Afonso, was held to be sheltering runaway slaves as well.

Although Pedro Afonso, facing an overwhelming army of over 20,, agreed to return some runaways, the army attacked his country and killed him.

The Portuguese forces scored a victory at the Battle of Mbumbi. There they faced a quickly gathered local force led by the new Duke of Mbamba, and reinforced by forces from Mpemba led by its marquis.

Both the Duke of Mbamba and the Marquis of Mpemba were killed in the battle. According to Esikongo accounts, they were eaten by the Imbangala allies of the Portuguese.

However, Pedro II, the newly crowned king of Kongo, brought the main army, including troops from Soyo, down into Mbamba and decisively defeated the Portuguese, driving them from the country at a battle waged somewhere near Mbanda Kasi in January Portuguese residents of Kongo, frightened by the consequences for their business of the invasion, wrote a hostile letter to Correia de Sousa, denouncing his invasion.

Meanwhile, anti-Portuguese riots broke out all over the kingdom and threatened its long-established merchant community.

Portuguese throughout the country were humiliatingly disarmed and even forced to give up their clothes. Pedro, anxious not to alienate the Portuguese merchant community, and aware that they had generally remained loyal during the war, did as much as he could to preserve their lives and property, leading some of his detractors to call him "king of Portuguese".

As a result of Kongo's victory, the Portuguese merchant community of Luanda revolted against the governor, hoping to preserve their ties with the king.

The interim government that followed the departure was led by the bishop of Angola. They were very conciliatory to Kongo and agreed to return over a thousand of the slaves captured by Correia de Sousa, especially the lesser nobles captured at the Battle of Mbumbi.

Regardless of the overtures of the new government in Angola, Pedro II had not forgotten the invasion and planned to remove the Portuguese from the realm altogether.

The king sent a letter to the Dutch Estates General proposing a joint military attack on Angola with a Kongo army and a Dutch fleet. He would pay the Dutch with gold, silver and ivory for their efforts.

The plan failed to come to fruition as by then Pedro had died and his son Garcia Mvemba a Nkanga was elected king.

King Garcia I was more forgiving of the Portuguese and had been successfully persuaded by their various gestures of conciliation.

He was unwilling to press the attack on Angola at that time, contending that as a Catholic, he could not ally with non-Catholics to attack the city.

The end of the first quarter of the 17th century saw a new flare-up in Kongo's political struggle. At the heart of the conflict were two noble houses fighting over the kingship.

As the reigning power, the House of Nsundi worked earnestly to place partisans in king-making positions throughout the empire.

After a rule marked by rumors of war mobilizations and other disruptions, a great riot at the capital resulted in the death of the king by a mob.

King Alvaro IV was only eleven at the time and easily manipulated. In , Daniel da Silva marched on the capital in order to "rescue his nephew from his enemies".

After a dramatic battle in Soyo, the young king was successfully restored only to be later poisoned by Alvaro V , a Kimpanzu.

Garcia II took the throne on the eve of several crises. As a result, Garcia II was prevented from completely consolidating his authority.

Another problem facing King Garcia II was a rebellion in the Dembos region, which also threatened his authority. Lastly, there was the agreement made by Pedro II in , promising Kongo's support to the Dutch in an offensive to oust Portugal from Luanda.

In , the Dutch invaded Angola and captured Luanda, after an almost bloodless struggle. They immediately sought to renew their alliance with Kongo, which had had a false start in , when Garcia I refused to assist a Dutch attack on Luanda.

While relations between Sao Salvador and Luanda were not warm, the two polities had enjoyed an easy peace, due to the former's internal distractions, and the latter's war against the Kingdom of Matamba.

The same year of the Portuguese ouster from Luanda, Kongo entered into a formal agreement with the new government, and agreed to provide military assistance as needed.

The colony of Angola was declared an enemy once again, and the Duke of Mbamba was sent with an army to assist the Dutch.

The Dutch also provided Kongo with military assistance, in exchange for payment in slaves. In , the Dutch sent troops to help Garcia II put down an uprising by peoples of the southern district in the Dembos region.

The government quickly put down the Nsala rebellion, reaffirming the Kongo-Dutch alliance. These slaves were sent to Pernambuco , Brazil where the Dutch had taken over a portion of the Portuguese sugar-producing region.

The Dutch captured Portuguese positions and forced their rivals to withdraw to Dutch forts on the Kwanza River at Muxima and Masangano. Following this victory, the Dutch once again appeared to lose interest in conquering the colony of Angola.

As in their conquest of Pernambuco, the Dutch West India Company was content to allow the Portuguese to remain inland. The Dutch sought to spare themselves the expense of war, and instead relied on control of shipping to profit from the colony.

Thus, to Garcia's chagrin, the Portuguese and Dutch signed a peace treaty in , ending the brief albeit successful war. With the Portuguese out of the way and an end to Dutch pursuit of troops, Garcia II could finally turn his attention to the growing threat posed by the Count of Soyo.

While Garcia was disappointed that his alliance with the Dutch could not drive out the Portuguese, it did free him to turn his attention to the growing threat posed by the Count of Soyo.

Count Paulo had assisted in the rise of the Kinlaza to power. However, Paulo died at about the same time as Garcia became king in A rival count, Daniel da Silva from the House of Kwilu, took control of the county as a partisan of the newly formed Kimpanzu faction.

He would claim that Soyo had the right to choose its own ruler, though Garcia never accepted this claim, and spent much of the first part of his reign fighting against it.

Garcia did not support da Silva's move, as Soyo's ruler was one of the most important offices in Kongo.

The campaign was a failure, due to Kongo's inability to take Soyo's fortified position at Mfinda Ngula. Worse still, Afonso was captured in the battle, forcing Garcia to engage in humiliating negotiations with da Silva to win back his son's freedom.

Italian Capuchin missionaries who had just arrived in Soyo, in the aftermath of the battle, assisted in the negotiations.

In , Garcia sent a second military force against Soyo, but his forces were again defeated. Because Garcia was so intent on subduing Soyo, he was unable to make a full military effort to assist the Dutch in their war against Portugal.

The Dutch were convinced that they could avoid committing their forces to any further wars. Queen Njinga had been active against the Portuguese, and the Dutch felt secure.

When Portuguese reinforcements managed to defeat her at Kavanga in , the Dutch felt obliged to be more aggressive. In , Kongo troops participated in the Battle of Kombi , where they soundly defeated the Portuguese field army, after forcing them to fight defensively.

A year later, Portuguese reinforcements from Brazil forced the Dutch to surrender Luanda and withdraw from Angola in Although neither Kongo nor Angola ever ratified the treaty, sent to the king in , the Portuguese gained de facto control of the island.

The war resulted in the Dutch losing their claims in Central Africa, Nzinga being forced back into Matamba, the Portuguese restored to their coastal position.

Kongo lost or gained nothing, other than the indemnity Garcia paid, which ended hostilities between the two rival powers.

King Garcia II, after allowing the Portuguese to gain control over Luanda Island, switched the kingdom's currency to raffia cloth, seemingly negating the Portuguese gains.

Portugal began pressing claims over southern vassals of Kongo, especially the country of Mbwila , following Portuguese restoration at Luanda.

Mbwila , a nominal vassal of Kongo, had also signed a treaty of vassalage with Portugal in It divided its loyalty between the Colony of Angola and Kongo in the intervening period.

Though the Portuguese often attacked Mbwila , they never brought it under their authority. Although it is not clear what diplomatic activities he engaged in with Spain itself, the Portuguese clearly believed that he hoped to repeat the Dutch invasion, this time with the assistance of Spain.

The Portuguese had been troubled, moreover, by Kongo support of runaway slaves, who flocked to southern Kongo throughout the s. At the same time, the Portuguese were advancing their own agenda for Mbwila, which they claimed as a vassal.

In , both sides invaded Mbwila, and their rival armies met each other at Ulanga, in the valley below Mbanza Mbwila, capital of the district.

At the Battle of Mbwila in , the Portuguese forces from Angola had their first victory against the kingdom of Kongo since In the aftermath of the battle, there was no clear succession.

The country was divided between rival claimants to the throne. The two factions, Kimpanzu and Kinlaza , hardened, and partitioned the country between them.

Pretenders would ascend to the throne, and then be ousted. The period was marked by an increase in BaKongo slaves being sold across the Atlantic, the weakening of the Kongo monarchy and the strengthening of Soyo.

During this chaos, Kongo was being increasingly manipulated by Soyo. In an act of desperation, the central authority in Kongo called on Luanda to attack Soyo in return for various concessions.

The Portuguese invaded the county of Soyo in The kingdom of Kongo was to remain completely independent, though still embroiled in civil war, thanks to the very force Portuguese colonials it had fought so long to destroy.

This Portuguese defeat was resounding enough to end all Portuguese ambitions in Kongo's sphere of influence, until the end of the nineteenth century.

The battles between the Kimpanzu and Kinlaza continued plunging the kingdom into a chaos not known in centuries. Ironically, the capital built by the pact of Mpemba and Mbata was burned to the ground, not by the Portuguese or rival African nations but by its very heirs.

The city and hinterland around Mbanza Kongo became depopulated. The population dispersed into the mountain top fortresses of the rival kings.

In the interim, however, tens of thousands fleeing the conflict or caught up in the battles were deported as slaves to English, French, Dutch and Portuguese merchants every year.

One human stream led north to Loango, whose merchants, known as Vili Mubires in the period carried them primarily to merchants from England and the Netherlands, and others were taken south to Luanda, where they were sold to Portuguese merchants bound for Brazil.

By the end of the seventeenth century, several long wars and interventions by the now independent Counts of Soyo who restyled themselves as Grand Princes had brought an end to Kongo's golden age.

For nearly forty years, the kingdom of Kongo wallowed in civil war. In the midst of this crisis, a young woman named Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita appeared claiming that she was possessed by the spirit of Saint Anthony.

She tried to win recognition for a reunification of the country. After being driven away from there, she decided to call her followers to reoccupy the capital with her.

Thousands came, and the city was repopulated. As she became more of a political actor, she became involved in the rivalry between the kings, eventually choosing to elect the Kibangu army commander Pedro Constantinho da Silva as a new king, over Pedro IV.

However, she was captured shortly after this by Pedro IV's supporters, tried, condemned for witchcraft and heresy and burned in July, In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Kongo artists began making crucifixes and other religious objects that depicted Jesus as an African.

Such objects produced by many workshops over a long period given their variety reflect that emerging belief that Kongo was a central part of the Christian world, and fundamental to its history.

It was called affectionately, Nkulumbimbi. Pope John Paul II would eventually say mass at this cathedral in Manuel II ruled over a restored and restive kingdom until his death in However, Soyo's provincial status in the kingdom, nominal for years, limited Manuel's power.

Nsundi on the north had also more or less become independent, although still claiming to be part of the larger kingdom and more or less permanently ruled by a Kimpanzu family.

Even within the remaining portions of the kingdom, there were still powerful and violent rivalries. At least one major war took place in the s in the province of Mbamba.

Pedro IV's restoration required his successor's membership in a branch of the Kinlaza faction resident in Matadi that had sworn loyalty to Pedro IV in Other Kinlaza branches had developed in the north, at Lemba and Matari, and in the south along the Mbidizi River in lands that had been ruled by D.

Pedro and his successor in Luvata maintained a separate court at Sembo, and never acknowledged the usurpation. Afonso's brief reign ended in his sudden death, rumored to be by poisoning.

A confused struggle broke out following Afonso's death. By , the throne ended up in the hands of Henrique I , a man of uncertain factional origin, who arranged for three parties to divide the succession.

Garcia V abrogated the arrangement, proclaiming himself king in He ruled until Andre ruled until when Henrique II , from the southern Mbidizi Valley branch of the same family, overthrew him.

In the Portuguese government, acting on British pressure, abolished the slave trade south of the equator which had so damaged Central Africa.

Human trafficking continued until well into the s, first as an illegal slave trade, then as contract labor.

A commodity trade, at first focused on ivory and wax, but gradually growing to include peanuts and rubber, replaced the slave trade.

This trade revolutionized the economies and eventually the politics of the whole of Central Africa. In place of the slave trade, largely under the control of state authorities, thousands, and eventually hundreds of thousands, of commoners began carrying goods from inland to coastal ports.

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However, Pedro II, the newly crowned king of Kongo, brought the main army, including troops from Soyo, down into Mbamba and decisively defeated the Portuguese, driving them from the country at a battle waged somewhere near Mbanda Kasi in January Portuguese residents of Kongo, frightened by the consequences for their business of the invasion, wrote a hostile letter to Correia de Sousa, denouncing his invasion.

Meanwhile, anti-Portuguese riots broke out all over the kingdom and threatened its long-established merchant community.

Portuguese throughout the country were humiliatingly disarmed and even forced to give up their clothes. Pedro, anxious not to alienate the Portuguese merchant community, and aware that they had generally remained loyal during the war, did as much as he could to preserve their lives and property, leading some of his detractors to call him "king of Portuguese".

As a result of Kongo's victory, the Portuguese merchant community of Luanda revolted against the governor, hoping to preserve their ties with the king.

The interim government that followed the departure was led by the bishop of Angola. They were very conciliatory to Kongo and agreed to return over a thousand of the slaves captured by Correia de Sousa, especially the lesser nobles captured at the Battle of Mbumbi.

Regardless of the overtures of the new government in Angola, Pedro II had not forgotten the invasion and planned to remove the Portuguese from the realm altogether.

The king sent a letter to the Dutch Estates General proposing a joint military attack on Angola with a Kongo army and a Dutch fleet. He would pay the Dutch with gold, silver and ivory for their efforts.

The plan failed to come to fruition as by then Pedro had died and his son Garcia Mvemba a Nkanga was elected king. King Garcia I was more forgiving of the Portuguese and had been successfully persuaded by their various gestures of conciliation.

He was unwilling to press the attack on Angola at that time, contending that as a Catholic, he could not ally with non-Catholics to attack the city.

The end of the first quarter of the 17th century saw a new flare-up in Kongo's political struggle. At the heart of the conflict were two noble houses fighting over the kingship.

As the reigning power, the House of Nsundi worked earnestly to place partisans in king-making positions throughout the empire.

After a rule marked by rumors of war mobilizations and other disruptions, a great riot at the capital resulted in the death of the king by a mob.

King Alvaro IV was only eleven at the time and easily manipulated. In , Daniel da Silva marched on the capital in order to "rescue his nephew from his enemies".

After a dramatic battle in Soyo, the young king was successfully restored only to be later poisoned by Alvaro V , a Kimpanzu. Garcia II took the throne on the eve of several crises.

As a result, Garcia II was prevented from completely consolidating his authority. Another problem facing King Garcia II was a rebellion in the Dembos region, which also threatened his authority.

Lastly, there was the agreement made by Pedro II in , promising Kongo's support to the Dutch in an offensive to oust Portugal from Luanda.

In , the Dutch invaded Angola and captured Luanda, after an almost bloodless struggle. They immediately sought to renew their alliance with Kongo, which had had a false start in , when Garcia I refused to assist a Dutch attack on Luanda.

While relations between Sao Salvador and Luanda were not warm, the two polities had enjoyed an easy peace, due to the former's internal distractions, and the latter's war against the Kingdom of Matamba.

The same year of the Portuguese ouster from Luanda, Kongo entered into a formal agreement with the new government, and agreed to provide military assistance as needed.

The colony of Angola was declared an enemy once again, and the Duke of Mbamba was sent with an army to assist the Dutch.

The Dutch also provided Kongo with military assistance, in exchange for payment in slaves. In , the Dutch sent troops to help Garcia II put down an uprising by peoples of the southern district in the Dembos region.

The government quickly put down the Nsala rebellion, reaffirming the Kongo-Dutch alliance. These slaves were sent to Pernambuco , Brazil where the Dutch had taken over a portion of the Portuguese sugar-producing region.

The Dutch captured Portuguese positions and forced their rivals to withdraw to Dutch forts on the Kwanza River at Muxima and Masangano.

Following this victory, the Dutch once again appeared to lose interest in conquering the colony of Angola. As in their conquest of Pernambuco, the Dutch West India Company was content to allow the Portuguese to remain inland.

The Dutch sought to spare themselves the expense of war, and instead relied on control of shipping to profit from the colony.

Thus, to Garcia's chagrin, the Portuguese and Dutch signed a peace treaty in , ending the brief albeit successful war. With the Portuguese out of the way and an end to Dutch pursuit of troops, Garcia II could finally turn his attention to the growing threat posed by the Count of Soyo.

While Garcia was disappointed that his alliance with the Dutch could not drive out the Portuguese, it did free him to turn his attention to the growing threat posed by the Count of Soyo.

Count Paulo had assisted in the rise of the Kinlaza to power. However, Paulo died at about the same time as Garcia became king in A rival count, Daniel da Silva from the House of Kwilu, took control of the county as a partisan of the newly formed Kimpanzu faction.

He would claim that Soyo had the right to choose its own ruler, though Garcia never accepted this claim, and spent much of the first part of his reign fighting against it.

Garcia did not support da Silva's move, as Soyo's ruler was one of the most important offices in Kongo. The campaign was a failure, due to Kongo's inability to take Soyo's fortified position at Mfinda Ngula.

Worse still, Afonso was captured in the battle, forcing Garcia to engage in humiliating negotiations with da Silva to win back his son's freedom.

Italian Capuchin missionaries who had just arrived in Soyo, in the aftermath of the battle, assisted in the negotiations. In , Garcia sent a second military force against Soyo, but his forces were again defeated.

Because Garcia was so intent on subduing Soyo, he was unable to make a full military effort to assist the Dutch in their war against Portugal.

The Dutch were convinced that they could avoid committing their forces to any further wars. Queen Njinga had been active against the Portuguese, and the Dutch felt secure.

When Portuguese reinforcements managed to defeat her at Kavanga in , the Dutch felt obliged to be more aggressive. In , Kongo troops participated in the Battle of Kombi , where they soundly defeated the Portuguese field army, after forcing them to fight defensively.

A year later, Portuguese reinforcements from Brazil forced the Dutch to surrender Luanda and withdraw from Angola in Although neither Kongo nor Angola ever ratified the treaty, sent to the king in , the Portuguese gained de facto control of the island.

The war resulted in the Dutch losing their claims in Central Africa, Nzinga being forced back into Matamba, the Portuguese restored to their coastal position.

Kongo lost or gained nothing, other than the indemnity Garcia paid, which ended hostilities between the two rival powers.

King Garcia II, after allowing the Portuguese to gain control over Luanda Island, switched the kingdom's currency to raffia cloth, seemingly negating the Portuguese gains.

Portugal began pressing claims over southern vassals of Kongo, especially the country of Mbwila , following Portuguese restoration at Luanda.

Mbwila , a nominal vassal of Kongo, had also signed a treaty of vassalage with Portugal in It divided its loyalty between the Colony of Angola and Kongo in the intervening period.

Though the Portuguese often attacked Mbwila , they never brought it under their authority. Although it is not clear what diplomatic activities he engaged in with Spain itself, the Portuguese clearly believed that he hoped to repeat the Dutch invasion, this time with the assistance of Spain.

The Portuguese had been troubled, moreover, by Kongo support of runaway slaves, who flocked to southern Kongo throughout the s.

At the same time, the Portuguese were advancing their own agenda for Mbwila, which they claimed as a vassal. In , both sides invaded Mbwila, and their rival armies met each other at Ulanga, in the valley below Mbanza Mbwila, capital of the district.

At the Battle of Mbwila in , the Portuguese forces from Angola had their first victory against the kingdom of Kongo since In the aftermath of the battle, there was no clear succession.

The country was divided between rival claimants to the throne. The two factions, Kimpanzu and Kinlaza , hardened, and partitioned the country between them.

Pretenders would ascend to the throne, and then be ousted. The period was marked by an increase in BaKongo slaves being sold across the Atlantic, the weakening of the Kongo monarchy and the strengthening of Soyo.

During this chaos, Kongo was being increasingly manipulated by Soyo. In an act of desperation, the central authority in Kongo called on Luanda to attack Soyo in return for various concessions.

The Portuguese invaded the county of Soyo in The kingdom of Kongo was to remain completely independent, though still embroiled in civil war, thanks to the very force Portuguese colonials it had fought so long to destroy.

This Portuguese defeat was resounding enough to end all Portuguese ambitions in Kongo's sphere of influence, until the end of the nineteenth century.

The battles between the Kimpanzu and Kinlaza continued plunging the kingdom into a chaos not known in centuries. Ironically, the capital built by the pact of Mpemba and Mbata was burned to the ground, not by the Portuguese or rival African nations but by its very heirs.

The city and hinterland around Mbanza Kongo became depopulated. The population dispersed into the mountain top fortresses of the rival kings.

In the interim, however, tens of thousands fleeing the conflict or caught up in the battles were deported as slaves to English, French, Dutch and Portuguese merchants every year.

One human stream led north to Loango, whose merchants, known as Vili Mubires in the period carried them primarily to merchants from England and the Netherlands, and others were taken south to Luanda, where they were sold to Portuguese merchants bound for Brazil.

By the end of the seventeenth century, several long wars and interventions by the now independent Counts of Soyo who restyled themselves as Grand Princes had brought an end to Kongo's golden age.

For nearly forty years, the kingdom of Kongo wallowed in civil war. In the midst of this crisis, a young woman named Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita appeared claiming that she was possessed by the spirit of Saint Anthony.

She tried to win recognition for a reunification of the country. After being driven away from there, she decided to call her followers to reoccupy the capital with her.

Thousands came, and the city was repopulated. As she became more of a political actor, she became involved in the rivalry between the kings, eventually choosing to elect the Kibangu army commander Pedro Constantinho da Silva as a new king, over Pedro IV.

However, she was captured shortly after this by Pedro IV's supporters, tried, condemned for witchcraft and heresy and burned in July, In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Kongo artists began making crucifixes and other religious objects that depicted Jesus as an African.

Such objects produced by many workshops over a long period given their variety reflect that emerging belief that Kongo was a central part of the Christian world, and fundamental to its history.

It was called affectionately, Nkulumbimbi. Pope John Paul II would eventually say mass at this cathedral in Manuel II ruled over a restored and restive kingdom until his death in However, Soyo's provincial status in the kingdom, nominal for years, limited Manuel's power.

Nsundi on the north had also more or less become independent, although still claiming to be part of the larger kingdom and more or less permanently ruled by a Kimpanzu family.

Even within the remaining portions of the kingdom, there were still powerful and violent rivalries. At least one major war took place in the s in the province of Mbamba.

Pedro IV's restoration required his successor's membership in a branch of the Kinlaza faction resident in Matadi that had sworn loyalty to Pedro IV in Other Kinlaza branches had developed in the north, at Lemba and Matari, and in the south along the Mbidizi River in lands that had been ruled by D.

Pedro and his successor in Luvata maintained a separate court at Sembo, and never acknowledged the usurpation. Afonso's brief reign ended in his sudden death, rumored to be by poisoning.

A confused struggle broke out following Afonso's death. By , the throne ended up in the hands of Henrique I , a man of uncertain factional origin, who arranged for three parties to divide the succession.

Garcia V abrogated the arrangement, proclaiming himself king in He ruled until Andre ruled until when Henrique II , from the southern Mbidizi Valley branch of the same family, overthrew him.

In the Portuguese government, acting on British pressure, abolished the slave trade south of the equator which had so damaged Central Africa. Human trafficking continued until well into the s, first as an illegal slave trade, then as contract labor.

A commodity trade, at first focused on ivory and wax, but gradually growing to include peanuts and rubber, replaced the slave trade.

This trade revolutionized the economies and eventually the politics of the whole of Central Africa. In place of the slave trade, largely under the control of state authorities, thousands, and eventually hundreds of thousands, of commoners began carrying goods from inland to coastal ports.

These people managed to share in the wealth of the new trade, and as a result, commercially connected people constructed new villages and challenged the authorities.

During this period social structure changed as well. New social organizations, makanda , emerged. These makanda , nominally clans descended from common ancestors, were as much trading associations as family units.

A new oral tradition about the founder of the kingdom, often held to be Afonso I, described the kingdom as originating when the king caused the clans to disperse in all directions.

The histories of these clans, typically describing the travels of their founder and his followers from an origin point to their final villages, replaced in many areas the history of the kingdom itself.

Despite violent rivalries and the fracturing of the kingdom, it continued to exist independently well into the 19th century. The rise of the clans became noticeable in the s at the end of the reign of Henrique II.

In or , two potential kings emerged to contest the succession following his death. The Portuguese support which had put Pedro V on the throne had a price, for when he was crowned Pedro V he was actually the second king named Pedro V; the first one ruled in the late s he had also sworn a treaty of vassalage to Portugal.

In , citing excessive costs, the Portuguese government withdrew its garrison. Pedro was able to continue his rule, however, although he faced increasing rivalry from clan-based trading magnates who drained his authority from much of the country.

The most dangerous of these was Garcia Mbwaka Matu of the town of Makuta. This town had been founded by a man named Kuvo, who probably obtained his wealth through trade, since he and Garcia made a great deal of controlling markets.

Though this was a great challenge in the s, after Garcia's death in , Makuta became less problematic. At the Conference of Berlin in —, European powers divided most of Central Africa between them.

Portugal claimed the lion's share of what remained of independent Kongo; however, Portugal was not then in a position to make "effective occupation".

King Pedro V continued to rule until his death in , and was able to use the Portuguese to strengthen his control. In he voluntarily reaffirmed Kongo's position as a Portuguese vassal state.

After a revolt against the Portuguese in , Portugal declared the abolition of the kingdom of Kongo, of which the ruler at that time was Manuel III of Kongo , ending native rule and replacing it with direct colonial rule.

However, according to the Almanach de Bruxelles a series of titular Kings kept on using the title until at least until , when a dispute over the succession began.

The kingdom's army consisted of a mass levy of archers, drawn from the general male population, and a smaller corps of heavy infantry, who fought with swords and carried shields for protection.

Portuguese documents typically referred to heavy infantry, considered nobles, as fidalgos in documents. The bearing of a shield was also important, as Portuguese documents usually call the heavy infantry adargueiros shield bearers.

There is weak evidence to suggest revenue assignments paid and supported them. A large number, perhaps as many as 20,, stayed in the capital.

Smaller contingents lived in the major provinces under the command of provincial rulers. Join Now.

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